|[ Викачати з сервера (1.00 Mb) ]||2021-02-13, 5:43 PM|
The article is focused on research of the phenomenon of torture in the XXI century.
In the article, the author presents a thesis that explains not only the resumption of torture as a phenomenon in the second half of the XX century but also spreading of the phenomenon of torture in the XXI century with corresponding dispersal of social control networks and, consequently, increasing of types and kinds of deviants.
Thus, on the one hand, national criminal justice systems cannot cope with this task – to deal with deviants only within the formal procedures enshrined in national law against the background of increasing classes, types, types and, consequently, the number of deviants.
On the other hand, we have the data of numerous studies and surveys of the population of Europe and North America, where from 1/3 to 1/2 of citizens allow the use of torture against terrorists for the purpose of the same "security".
The article concludes that the policy of preventing torture and combating social practices of torture in the XXI century is a reflection of a complex political dualistic process: an attempt to develop more "secure society" with corresponding failure to "secure" it.
The article analyzes the models that explain the political preconditions for the use of torture in the second half of the XX - early XXI century for the purposes of "protection of society".
Thus, scientists distinguish three models: 1) "security model"; 2) "stability model"; 3) "legitimation model".
The article emphasizes that in the society of the XXI century torture exists within two interrelated political spheres, where the first of the spheres is a formalized policy of combating torture, which is shaped and implemented within universal regional and national structures.
The second one is informal torture policy, which is shaped within the framework of post-modern modulation of panoptic risk management, where torture is an instrument of modern social control.
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